Neo-Nazism, Fascism and Right-Wing Extremism in Germany and Serbia: Similarities and Differences

Apparently, the use of terminology can lead to confusion. The term "fascism" is most often associated with the ideology and politics of Nazi Germany, but at the same time with the naming of an extreme right-wing political option in the recent past. Fascism is considered an ideology of negativity: fascism is against democracy, socialism, equality. Fascism is often seen as a militant form of right-wing extremism, which served as a justification for denying basic human rights to millions of people during World War II - the right to life, freedom of movement, and speech. A parallel study of historical revisionism in Germany and Serbia and the current socio-political situation indicates a worrying degree of growth of nationalism, right-wing extremism and fascism in both countries. Right-wing extremism, racism and fascism continue to be a major problem in Brandenburg, where there are a number of extreme right-wing "fraternities" - associations that work together and are well organized and networked. Most of them are in the economically backward parts of the province - in the north, northeast, and south of Brandenburg. These "fraternities" are linked to right-wing political parties in Germany - the NPD (National Party of Germany) and the DVU (Democratic People's Union), which provide them with financial support, both for their many activities and for launching small, independent music and textile industry. In this way, the "fraternities" provide employment for their members and financial resources for the movement. Very often, the targets of their attacks are anti-fascist associations and individuals, which represent a strong counterpoint to right-wing extremism and fascism in Germany. In Serbia, extreme right-wing associations are also well organized and interconnected. Many of them function under the spiritual and financial auspices of the Serbian Orthodox Church and the Serbian community in the diaspora. While in Germany neo-Nazism or neo-fascism is mostly directed towards racial and political intolerance, in Serbia it is primarily based on national and religious grounds. The most horrifying illustrator of this fact is the war fought in Croatia and Bosnia during the 1990s. In this case, the reinterpretation of the national "tradition" represents the ideological strategy of modern Serbian fascism. A good example of the organizations of extreme right-wing and fascist organizations in Serbia are the "Serbian national sites", that is, numerous internet presentations of these organizations, united under this name. Situations on the anti-fascist scene are diametrically different in Serbia and Germany. In Germany, anti-fascist organizations are supported by state institutions. Thus, neo-fascist organizations were moved to the social margins. In Serbia, the situation is reversed. Extreme right-wing and fascist organizations have, if not open, then covert support from state institutions, right-wing political parties, the University, Serbian Learned Society and the Serbian Orthodox Church. Therefore, anti-fascist initiatives and organizations in Serbia are precisely those that are marginalized. Most anti-fascist organizations have been active on the German political scene for many years. They are also very well connected in a functional network called the "Brandenburg Youth Democratic Forum", which allows them to exchange ideas, knowledge and jointly implement actions against neo-fascism in Germany. The "Brandenburg Youth Democratic Forum" also believes that international cooperation with similar organizations can contribute to a more effective fight against right-wing extremism. The project "Mapping of right-wing extremism" was launched in cooperation with the "Youth Democratic Forum of Brandenburg".